Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo Feb 2, 1848

University Sin Fronteras

San Antonio Campus


Decolonizing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

ruben solis garcia




ReGenerate the historical memory of the manifest destiny question

ReGenerate the war memories and atrocities

ReGenerate the knowledge of the TGH

Develop an analytical historic cultural new narrative

What is Aztlan?


Key question was what was happening before, during and after…this period in 1848?


what was happening before?

(round robin)


After Spanish colonialism, under the doctrine of discovery, occupied the caribbean and the America’s since 1492, and Mexico since 1521, and in 1821 Mexico became an independent nation after a long social revolution for Independence.  1492 is the beginning of modernism and colonialism, racism and slavery were building bedrocks of this european system of domination.  From the original accumulation of wealth from slavery came capitalism, and the so called industrial revolution.  The caribbean became the first colonies of the european monarchies and imperialism.


Since independence in 1821 to 1836 when the Slave Republic of Texas is established, Mexico underwent at least 30 change of government administration in the battle between conservatives (who wanted absolute monarchy reestablished) and the liberals who wanted a liberal secular republic.  The conservatives belonged to the Scottish rite mason’s party and the liberals belonged to the York rite Mason’s party.


The US was intervening in many places under its Monroe Doctrine, and good old manifest destiny.  The vision was set for expansionism under the slogan of ‘from sea to shining sea’.  The Monroe doctrine came right after the revolution in Haiti to free the slaves and establish the first free territory of the Americas.  The US sought to stop and crush the slave revolutions and the independence movements.


Texas (THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO) had been taken, and the Slave Republic of Texas was set up in 1836 as a step towards immediate petition to be annexed to US as a SLAVE state.  Texas was ‘annexed’ in 1845 as a prelude to the war against Mexico by the US.  The Slave drivers wanted to have a majority of SLAVE states in the US Congress when the bill to prohibit and outlaw slavery came up for a vote.  There was a fight in US Congress about new territories because of the so called balance between slave states and non slave states.  The slave states failed to win the vote and succeeded from the US and set up their own country, government, army and constitution.



What happened During?

The United States went to war against Mexico in 1846, and militarily invaded Mexico.  President Polk sent troops under Gen Z Taylor to the Rio Grande River (the border unilaterally established by the Slave Republic of Texas), and thus the first confrontation and battle between the US military and Mexican people and military.  Taylor became so famous he then ran for US President.  On September 1847 Taylor took Mexico DF, at the Chapultepec, when the cadets jumped to their death rather than surrender the flag of Mexico.  One fact is that the US Marines were invented for the war with Mexico and did the first amphibious assault in Veracruz.  Thus the US Marine hymn goes, “from the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli”.


The battle of Palo Alto by Brownsville, Texas was the first battle of the War unleashed by the US against Mexico.  The war was made in Washington DC.  It was and expansionist war but also a political war.  It was about hemispheric domination and hegemonic power by the US (Monroe Doctrine).  This is still the US plan today under neo liberal globalization.


Tigeres del Norte (Juan N Cortina), a guerrilla army, took up the battle against the US military invasion, even at the first moment of the invasion.  The people in Texas had already experienced the land grab by the slave Republic of Texas and the corrupt politicians so they knew what the annexation of Texas to the US, and the military invasion were all part of a larger land grab.



what happened after?


In 1848, Santa Ana is in power in Mexico after a right wing coup against the liberals, and he exiles Benito Juarez governor of the state of Oaxaca to La Habana and then to new Orleans.  Benito Juarez organizes in New Orleans the Plan de Ayutla to overthrow Santa Ana.  Zackery Taylor runs for President and wins.


Mexico land was robbed by the US.  Usually we hear of five states (Aztlan) but it was really nearly 10 states plus parts of others.


The Transnational railroad (Gould) was one of the engines that drove the US expansionism.


Article VIII and IX that was to protect land holding of the Mexican people who chose to stay and be US citizens, were completely and immediately violated.


The land grab went into full speed.  The California Gold rush was another factor to take California.


What was happening in 1848?


The year has been termed ‘the wave of revolutions’.  Freemont was trying to take over California, Marx and Engels came out with the Communist Manifesto and the first International association of working people.  Paris commune, a working class socialist revolution in France.  The Hungarian revolution.  The Prague working class revolution.  The first US Women’s rights convention in Seneca.  Irish famine and revolution.  Revolutions in Vienna, Berlin, Frankfurt, Milan, and the British invade Nicaragua, and the first commercial bank opens in SF.  Panama established.  Bonaparte coming into power.



Lesson Plan:


6 PM Start class/seminar


Part one:

Q.1 What do you know of the TGH?

Round robin discussion


Part two:

15-20 minute historical framing of the TGH (adjunct faculty)



Part three:

Q.2 What does it mean to ‘decolonize’ the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

Small group work

Round Robin discussion


Part four:

  1. 3 What will you do immediately to decolonize TGH?

Reflection paper (one page hand written) w name and email


Close of class 8 PM


Glossary concept Terms:



conquered enemy

Mexican cession


Manifest destiny

Doctrine of discovery


Absolute monarchy



Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers



Paris commune

Juan Cortina

Benito Juarez

York rite

Scottish rite



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